1. That is, GDP doubled every five years from sometime in the 80s until 2008. Close links to Hong Kong and Macau mean that Pearl River Delta region consumers adopt international tastes earlier than most places in China, making the region one of the trend setters in China. Since economic reform was implemented in China in 1978 (see At present, the Pearl Delta cities have a combined GDP of around $1.5 trillion, roughly equal to San Francisco Bay or South Korea. View our suggested citation for this chapter. If the enterprise then passes the environmental protection examination at the end of the year, the sum is returned along with an additional financial reward. It is a world leader in the production of electronic goods, electrical products, electrical and electronic components, watches and clocks, toys, garments and textiles, plastic products, and a range of other goods. This city was a seaport in the 4 th Century, and is now located well inland from the current Ebro river mouth. FIGURE 9-14 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. SOURCES: Selected Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. In urban areas intensification has taken the form of significant increases in population density since 1980 ( Clearly, the impact might be different if neighboring jurisdictions were to adopt similar regulations; the air quality might improve, but economic effects might be negative if polluting industries were prohibited throughout the region. Zhuhai was an underdeveloped rural county before 1979, when, administratively, it became a municipality. At the same time, cities faced the problem of providing in-migrants with. 5–30 Int J Biometeorol. According to the latest report from the United Nations (UN), the global population in 2018 was 7.6 billion and the urban population was 4.2 billion. Many industries, however, are reluctant to allocate financial resources toward improving the environment. Overall, as net migration rates rose in the Delta between 1980 and 1994, farmland decreased (see The first is the proportion of population living within the boundaries of cities and towns. Greening built-up areas in Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) city clusters. ~ enlarge ~ Figure 9-4). Nonindustrial consumers generated 41.7 percent of total wastewater in 1986, rising to 66.4 percent in 1994. Some industries—particularly iron ore, pig iron, raw coal, calcium sulfate ore, phosphate fertilizer, cement, and calcium sulfate—produce considerable quantities of solid and liquid waste. Ma Xia. Thus the proportion of treated industrial emissions increased from 50 percent in 1986 to 87.2 percent in 1995 in Guangdong Province as a whole, and from 47 percent to about 93.1 percent in the Delta area over the same period. This decreased consumption of vegetables and grains was offset by higher consumption of oil, meat, poultry, and fish. NOTE: Total population includes only persons registered in the Pearl River Delta and excludes the floating population registered in other places. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Finding 2: In the Pearl River Delta changes in consumption levels caused by the economic growth have led to changes in land use in cities and changes in crop production in rural areas. Finally, several special field surveys on land quality have been conducted since the 1960s. The Pearl River Delta is one of the most populated areas of China. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses nearly 7000 square kilometers, 0.07 percent of China, with a population of 22 million people, 3.1 percent of the 2010 population of mainland China. 6: In the 1990s the pressure of population growth on the land, particularly that produced by the in-migrant and floating populations, began to attract more attention from governments at all levels. Finding 1: Population growth, in particular migration and increases in the floating population, is at once a cause and a consequence of land use change in the Pearl River Delta. The “older” soils thus were better protected from degradation. The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. 1994. Finding 4: Soil quality in the Pearl River Delta improved during periods of sustainable land use, but it has been degraded in some areas by improper land use. Lu Faxi. Calculations by Qin Mingzhou. Intensified land use also is evident in agriculture, where more farmland must be converted to nonagricultural uses to make room for urbanization. By 2050, the global population is expected to soar to 9.7 billion, with 68% of the population living in urban areas. It also is a major market for transportation and trade-related services. That is, GDP doubled every five years from sometime in the 80s until 2008. With the transition in market patterns, land use in cities continued to change, and in agricultural areas land was shifted from grain to cash crops. Figure 9-5). 15: In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. Monitoring population dynamics in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The region is made up of 13 counties and cities distributed among six municipalities that lie on either side of the Pearl River estuary (see Field observations suggest that Zhuhai's better performance in environmental protection was the result of several policy commitments. As the world’s population exceeds an incredible 6 billion people, governments—and scientists—everywhere are concerned about the prospects for sustainable development. FIGURE 9-2 Total population, Pearl River Delta, 1970–1994. By 1979, China’s Pearl River Delta had seen little urbanization. The zone occupies an area of around 70,000 square miles. 1. The second factor is that farmers were increasingly able to export their products outside the region. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1970–1995. Figure 9-8). Zhuhai greatly benefits from being a special economic zone, whereas of the other municipalities, only Shenzhen benefits from that special status. The world has experienced dramatic urbanization in recent decades. Although it covers only 1% of China’s territory and makes up 4.3% of its population, the Pearl River Delta is the biggest economic hub in the country. fell into two categories: official statistics and independent survey data. 2020 Mar;64(3):501-512. doi: 10.1007/s00484-019-01837-4. This legislation not only strictly defines what is forbidden in order to prevent pollution, but also explicitly states what must be done to protect the environment—for example, the standards that must be met for drinking water, Industrial + agricultural prodn., average 1990–1995, Residents' bank balances, average 1990–1995, Annual growth rate of permanent residents, 1980–1995 (percent), Annual growth rate of total population, 1986–1995 (percent), Decrease in farmland per capita, 1986–1995 (percent), Wastewater per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Air emissions per capita, average 1990–1994 (cubic meters), Waste residue per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Index of seawater pollution at junction of river and sea, average 1991–1995. Smaller increases in the permanent population were evident during 1970–1980, until a one-child policy, launched in the early 1980s, led to a decline in birth rates nationwide. Because the government strictly controls nonagricultural household registration, some people who have lived in urban areas for many years and have worked in nonagricultural activities still have not been given nonagricultural household registration status. Overall, the population of the Pearl River Delta has grown considerably over the last two decades (Figure 9-2), but this growth cannot be attributed to natural increase because the crude birth rate in the Delta area is below those at the provincial and national levels … The total permanent population of the Delta region has grown at a substantially faster rate than populations elsewhere in China ( 425-445 In Southern China, the Pearl River Delta is giving rise to an urban super-power in the first rank. Zhuhai, however, is one of the fastest-growing municipalities, and its floating population is rising rapidly. At the same time, there was significant growth in smaller urban areas. As this study found in the municipality of Zhuhai, government policies can significantly ameliorate pollution levels. A considerable portion of this tremendous increase, however, resulted from the redrawing of administrative boundaries. The Delta region owes its rapid population growth mainly to massive in-migration (see the net migration rates for 1980–1994 in Cities such as Shenzhen and Guangzhou are among the most affluent in the Chinese Mainland. In addition, paper manufacturing poses one of the greatest pollution threats, and wooden furniture manufacturing results in significant loss of local forests. In response to these problems, the government has stepped up its efforts to limit the discharge of air pollution emissions. In the Delta area it mainly reflects rice production. The Pearl River Delta grew from 4,500 square kilometres in 2000 to nearly 7,000 sq km in 2010, the analysis found. Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing in China, Sao Paulo in Brazil) 127 cities (15.1%) from … The answer is “not necessarily” based on a comparative analysis of Zhuhai and the other five municipalities that, with Zhuhai, make up the Pearl River Delta. This indicator also overestimates the true level of urbanization, however, because some people who engaged in nonagricultural work lived in rural areas where there has been rapid growth in rural enterprises. The development of the sleepy Pearl River Delta has shown the world what a dramatic growth spurt can do as cities merge and megacities are born. Urban and built-up land now makes up a significant proportion of the Delta region, thanks largely to the ongoing industrial development and infrastructure construction in the area ( The specific region examined in this chapter is in the central part of the Pearl River Delta, which covers 17,219 square kilometers. FIGURE 9-13 Vegetable land, Huadu, Conghua, and Zengcheng counties, 1978–1988. ~ enlarge ~ Since the 2008 financial crisis, there have been great changes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where growing and shrinking areas coexist. Due to the special hydrological characteristics of estuary, the Pearl River involving a large variety of species [22] [23] . SOURCES: Urban/built-up: data for 1973 and 1995 are from Landsat images; data for 1982 and 1990 are from field surveys. This growth, however, has been accompanied by environmental pollution. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. 2, pp. Finding 3: The economic reform policies introduced in 1978 and known as the Open Door Policy greatly influenced the patterns of land use in the Pearl River Delta, although their impacts on land use differed over time. Data generated by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to test these findings. Under the farmyard manure regime fertility and soil quality improved. FIGURE 9-7 Farmland and net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. Since the onset of China's reform program, the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone has been the fastest growing portion of the fastest growing province in the fastest growing large economy in the world. Geocarto International: Vol. Figure 9-11). Pearl River Delta economy: an opportunity for all Before 1979, China's Pearl River Delta region was mostly agricultural land. Figure 9-5). Assessment and District Division of Soil Resource Utilization of Agriculture in Pearl River Delta. Shenzhen became a leader in terms of foreign exchange markets, operation of foreign banks, land reforms, and stock market development. Shenzhen, the showcase city of the Pearl River Delta likes to brag it is "the fastest growing city in the fastest growing region of the fastest growing province of the fastest growing country in the world." FIGURE 9-5 Urban/built-up areas and farmland, Pearl River Delta, 1960–1995. FIGURE 9-10 Per capita residential floor space, Guangzhou City, 1965–1995. 2This phenomenon is explained more fully in One or two environmental managers are appointed in every village and enterprise. The aim is to reach a GDP of $4.6 trillion – somewhere between Germany and Japan – by 2030. To compensate for the loss of farmland, farmers must increase yields per unit of farmland, which in turn requires higher inputs of technology, capital, and labor. Figure 9-6). Table 9-6). Land Economics. In the 1990s this population was estimated to be 100 million a year. 1994. In 1978 per capita grain consumption in urban areas of Ghangdong Province was 176 kilograms, falling to 88 kilograms by 1995 (see Figure 9-10), even though the population continued to grow. But by 1995 per capita floor space was about three times that of the 1960s and 1970s ( The abundance of employment … By this measure, which is the official definition used by the Chinese statistical system, the urban population of the Delta area more than doubled from 1982 to 1990, rising from 32 percent to 70 percent of the total permanent population. FIGURE 9-7 Farmland and net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. Guangzhou and Shenzhen, the region’s two tier 1 cities, account for 41% of the urban population of the PRD and 57% of GDP. Ratio of Floating to Permanent Population (percent). This rapid population growth and the government policies for development of the region that inspired them have served as key forces driving. India's Urban Population Growth Is Mostly Driven By Migration India Has Been Urbanizing Rapidly In The Period Between 2000 And 2020 India Has A Primate Urban System Indian Cities Have Weak Municipal Governments Which Province Is The Major Destination For Migrants In China? Impact of urbanization and delayed childbearing on population growth and aging in China. Economic Transformation of the Greater Pearl River Delta | 4 RESOLVING TRADE IMBALANCES China’s trade surplus with the U.S., at $273 billion in 2010, 9 is the world’s largest and indicative of an imbalance—the U.S. has been buying cheap goods from China, and China has been accumulating U.S. In this regard, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan, and other parts of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone have been at the forefront of private sector development in China. Introduction. SOURCES: Statistical Yearbooks of Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Zhuhai. . From 1950 to 1995, farmland in the Delta region dropped from 550,000 hectares to 310,000 hectares. If not, the money is not returned and a fine is imposed. Likewise, per capita vegetable consumption decreased over the same period—from 147 kilograms in 1978 to 103 kilograms in 1995. Ready to take your reading offline? We live in an increasingly urbanized world. A densely populated region in southeastern China, the Pearl River Delta has undergone dramatic changes in its population, land use, and environmental quality, stemming from its rapid economic development and urbanization. These changes have been characterized by the conversion of agricultural land into nonagricultural land and a trend toward more intensified use of land in both rural and urban areas. Also important, compared with cities in the other municipalities, Zhuhai City has a comparatively higher proportion of light industry to heavy industry, which generally leads to lower levels of pollution. Indeed, the government implemented special policies to foster housing development. Pearl River Delta: China’s Biggest Economic Hub. FIGURE 9-8 Unit area grain yield, Dongguan and Shenzhen, 1949–1996. Introduction to the Tri-Academy Project, 4. With the rapid increase of this population, housing construction was accelerated and grew from 0.17 million square meters in 1980 to 1.69 million square meters in 1989. Indeed, the economic output per unit of land has increased dramatically; the gross domestic product of Delta cities increased from 6.7 billion yuan in 1980 to 233.3 billion yuan in 1995. Job opportunities were available for some, but those with low education and skill levels in a time of rapid economic development found it difficult to find work. Today, the Pearl River Delta's GDP clocks in at over $1.2 trillion, ahead of countries like Mexico and Indonesia, making it the 15th largest economy in the world. FIGURE 9-3 Crude birth rate, China, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen City, and Zhuhai City, 1979–1994. The Delta was the fastest-growing region at around 15% a year! Approach on macro distribution of ecological environment of Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. 3Because of a lack of data, it is hard to show the complete picture of changes in cropping patterns in the Delta region. In 1979, the Central Government of the People's Republic of China announced that Guangdong Province would be allowed to follow less restrictive economic policies and would be permitted to set up three Special Economic Zones (SEZs), including two in the Pearl River Delta, Shenzhen and Zhuhai. The natural growth rate (the difference between the crude birth rate and crude death rate) of the Delta area also is lower than those for Guangdong Province and China as a whole, and a declining population growth rate might have been expected because of implementation of the one-child policy. The Pearl River Delta has been one of most economically dynamic regions of the People's Republic of China since the launch of China’s reform programme in 1979. Figure 9-1 and The difference between a member of the floating population and a migrant is that the member of the floating population does not change his or her household registration and the migrant does. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. For example, soil quality improved from 1981 to 1996 in most areas as farmers began to shift cropland to orchards and other garden lands in order to maximize economic benefits and attain more sustainable land use. SOURCES: Urban/built-up: data for 1973 and 1995 are from Landsat images; data for 1982 and 1990 are from field surveys. Beginning in the 1980s, the Chinese central government decided to implement a variety of policies that would build Shenzhen and Zhuhai into an exporting industry base. meter, as compared with 378 for all of Guangdong Province and 126 for China as a whole. A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population. Located in the subtropical monsoon zone, the region has an annual average temperature of 22°C, annual precipitation of 1,714 millimeters, and annual sunshine of 1,990-2,300 hours. Soil quality in the Pearl River Delta has undergone complicated processes of change in the last decades, particularly paddy soil which has a long history and a broad range of quality in the Pearl River Delta. Figure 9-2), but this growth cannot be attributed to natural increase because the crude birth rate in the Delta area is below those at the provincial and national levels ( In 2018, cities in the highest quarter of greenness range accommodated only 12% of the total city population; about 69% of the total population lived in areas with a lower greenness. The proportion of wastewater processed up to industrial discharge standards decreased from 30 percent in 1986 to 21 percent in 1994. 340 cities (40.4%) from upper-middle-income countries (e.g. As further evidence of its growth, Shenzhen had a built-up area of 58,507 hectares in 1990 compared with only 10,814 hectares in 1982. The Open Door Policy greatly stimulated productivity in the Pearl River Delta. Industries were built in response to market demands. FIGURE 9-4 Net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. Half of the area is covered with lateritic red soil (udic andisols) and 38.55 percent with paddy soil (stagnic anthrosols) (Lu Faxi, 1988; Guangdong Institute of Soil Science, 1988). SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1970–1995. Four times as many, the population growth of the entire Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration has reached four times that of the New York Bay area. FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. 35, No. But since the mid-1980s, in-migration, accelerating industrialization, and land use change have led to obvious environmental degradation. The Pearl River Delta climate is a humid sub-tropical climate with an average annual temperature of 23°C. NOTE: Grain yield per unit farmland is a weighted average of various grains. 1989. Beijing: China Statistical Press. The Pearl River Delta, the World’s Largest Urban Area. Various economic reform policies since 1978—including the establishment of special economic zones, a favorable investment environment, and favorable regulations—have fostered the emergence and growth of the region's manufacturing base and export-oriented economy. Since 1978, almost 30% of all foreign investment in China was in the PRD. For the first ten years of China's economic reform process, the internationalization of the Chinese economy was largely a Pearl River Delta phenomenon, with the export-oriented production of foreign-invested entities based in Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou leading the way. 1988 Urbanization also is occurring at a rapid pace, but in China it is difficult to measure because of the ambiguous definition of the term and frequent changes in the stated boundaries of urban areas (Ma Xia, 1988; Zeng Yi and Vaupel, 1989). It aims to bring prosperity through partnership among nine Chinese Mainland provinces and China's two special administrative regions. Rapid urbanization and burgeoning city populations have created demand for infrastructure, building materials, transportation services, housing, and other goods and services associated with urban development. Yet the case of Zhuhai City suggests that rapid economic growth accompanied by massive inmigration does not necessarily result in severe environmental degradation. Nevertheless, Hong Kong has always been a key part of the ecological region of the Pearl River Delta and frequently a destination for out-migrants from the region. GDP growth of the Pearl River Delta in mainland China 2009-2019 Published by C. Textor , Oct 21, 2020 In response to this problem, China adopted the strategy of limiting the expansion of large cities by developing medium and small cities, as well as small towns. The largest greening BUAs are Pearl River Delta (PRD)(Note 3), Tokyo, Yangtze River Delta (YRD, Note 4), Miami, Beijing, Chicago, Seoul, Tianjin, Sao Paulo, and Osaka. 1988 FIGURE 9-4 Net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. SOURCE: 1% Sampling Census of 1995 in Guangdong. For example, the per capita floor space in Guangzhou City remained constant from 1965 to 1980, at only 3–4 square meters. land devoted to grain crops decreased ( Chapter 8). Table 9-3). Chapter 8. Nevertheless, the example of Zhuhai shows that under certain conditions population, development, and environment can be positively related. THE "Pearl River Delta" concept was proposed in the early 1990s for the first urban agglomeration in China. Chinese Sociology & Anthropology: Vol. Even with the slowing of floating population growth, some, but not all, of the municipalities have continued strong population growth. Most moved temporarily into coastal regions such as the Pearl River Delta. Farmland was cleared to provide space for industry and for housing for the migrants. Table 9-5) and production. Between 1978 and 1980 chemical fertilizer applications in general soared as the economic reform and Open Door policies were implemented. FIGURE 9-2 Total population, Pearl River Delta, 1970–1994. However, the rapid increase of population density in the Pearl River Delta has led to an increase in food demand and severe pressure on fishery resources [24] . Finding 5: The urbanization policy adopted in the Pearl River Delta alleviated to some extent the population pressures on urban areas by encouraging the rapid development of small towns so they could absorb many of the surplus rural laborers who otherwise would have settled in the larger urban centers. 1997. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. part from government reform of the distribution system and encouragement of a free housing market. Soil in Pearl River Delta. Figure 9-7), despite the increasing local consumption of farm products. Table 9-1). Generally, soil quality was improved because the garden land received higher inputs of farmyard manure and more intensive management than the cropland. But the introduction of stringent regulations led to a decline in the emissions from these enterprises after 1980 and in turn to a decline in soil acidification ( Criterion for urban-rural classification and the level of urban development. All these steps have been effective at curbing pollution in the Zhuhai municipality. Stimulated by those favorable policies, township enterprises developed rapidly in the Pearl River Delta, and today they account for a large percentage of the total economic growth ( The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone accounted for 19.9 percent of GDP and 38.9 percent of total trade in 2005. This chapter begins by describing the physical conditions, demography, land use, and environmental quality of the region, as well as the methodology used to evaluate the interactions among them. This indicator increased by. The capacity for processing wastewater has lagged far behind the increased output (Tang Yonglun, 1995). Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, 10. World Population Growth Visualized (1950-2100) In any large set of data, there are bound to be some interesting outliers. It has been the most economically dynamic region of the Chinese Mainland since the launch of China's reform program in 1979. Rise of manufacturing and service sectors Natural population growth and high fertility rates Reclassification of rural towns as municipalities Rural to urban migration Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. In Guangzhou, known as the “dragon head” of economic development in Pearl River Delta and the whole of China as well, the municipal government allocates a portion of its large fiscal budget to the development and maintenance of green space—lawns, parks, artificial lakes, and squares ( Sixteen major soil types were observed continually in the Delta region from 1960 to 1980. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Population growth statistics are calculated on the basis of numbers of permanent residents, but China also has a “floating” population living away from their permanent residence (this phenomenon is described more fully later in this chapter and in The economic power of the Pearl River Delta is best reflected by the fact that although the region’s population is 5% of that of China, it produces more than 10% of its economic output, which would in itself make the area the 12th most powerful national economy, surpassing the economic power of Russia (1283.2 billion USD). The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is also a highly attractive consumer market. In Shenzhen City, for example, the local government began to control the size of the floating population by requiring special registration forms. 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