If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. Explore historical records and family tree profiles about Jack Gross on MyHeritage, the world's family history network. In the winter of 2018 Jack sold his first screenplay. He was born September 9, 1959 in Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie (Benjamin) Gross. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. After about 1870, it was mechanical in a double sense: machines were involved, and the people who did the labor were considered mechanical. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. Divisions of labor between workers, managers, and bosses do not, Marglin argued, serve increases in productivity and material prosperity, but rather the consolidation of wealth and power. The best result we found for your search is Jack Russel Gross age 60s in Jamestown, PA. We normally think of austerity as a process of paring back services, but those measures also generate new institutions. Every second, Whitepages helps 19 people do reverse phone lookups, find people, and get background reports, including public records, in order to make smarter, safer decisions. We publish research, analysis, and commentary from JFI staff and fellows, as well as from external researchers and writers. In 1966, Piven and Richard Cloward published "The Weight of the Poor" in the Nation magazine. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating of her ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. FREE Background Report. Check Reputation Score for Jack Gross in Chapel Hill, NC - View Criminal & Court Records | Photos | Address, Emails & Phone Number | Personal Review | $250K+ Income & … They have also lived in Key Largo, FL and Miami Gardens, FL. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. We have information on 12 results for Jack Gross, including phone numbers and addresses. As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. They have also lived in Brooklyn, NY Jack is related to Lisa H Gross and Gross Paul as well as 1 additional person. The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. Stephen Marglin is Walter S. Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968. jg: What makes your research compelling for readers far outside your discipline is that you historicize areas of science whose language or mode of reasoning has become so commonplace that we forget they have origins in methodology. The word mechanical begins also to denote the kind of person who does that work. The content published here does not necessarily reflect the views of the Jain Family Institute. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. ld: Originally, in ancient Rome, the term “mechanical” referred to simple machines like a pulley or a lever, but, by the Middle Ages, it had already developed derogatory associations. He manages the Phenomenal World. Jack is related to Richard P Gross and Timothy Gross as well as 3 additional people. Currently, Jack lives in Orlando, FL. Some very early textbooks, like Condorcet’s textbooks for the Écoles Centrales, were suffused with the view that grasping fundamental mathematical concepts could serve as a model for political decisions: it would teach future citizens what a clear and distinct idea is—and thereby inoculate them against political demagoguery. Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. Those negative connotations deepen in the 18th century. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. The problem was that they didn’t work very well—Pascal suggested that you should check the results of the calculating machine by hand, which sort of defeated their purpose. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. Small Wonder (TV Series 1985–1989) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? The best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross age 60s in Robbinsville, NC. He was also seen in a Canadian series entitled Slings and Arrows, where he was highly praised for his performance. Is the moderation labor that you bring up, which compensates for the limits of machines, new? ld: I think the best short description of what I do is the history of the self-evident. In commodities markets, purchasing wheat or pork belly futures for the next year would be an example. Further Reading. Harvard Computers, circa 1890. The ensuing political crisis would provide an opening in which to enact broad and lasting anti-poverty policy. Despite 13 consecutive years of top performance reviews, Jack Gross was suddenly demoted by his employer FBL Financial Group. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. Email him at jack.gross@jfiresearch.org. In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. If there’s inconsistency in judgment, it’s prima facie evidence for injustice. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? When these systems are optimizing over large populations of people, some people lose out in the calculation. But this leads to another, perhaps less obvious question: How does the once-unthinkable become not only thinkable but self-evident? The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. How did you begin working on this project? jg: It seems that there’s a thread that ties together calculation, Cold War rationality, and mathematical probability, which is the rationalization and formalization of various aspects of human judgment. If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. A very giving man, he literally would starve so others could eat and break his leg to fix someone else’s. One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. ld: I think that’s correct, but I didn’t initially think of these projects as being linked. Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. Jack Gross is telling me that the best way to prepare for a world where you could be cast aside from moving up, is to always, always be your best so that they can't reject you. They have also lived in Hays, KS and Dodge City, KS. Optimizing the Crisis. Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. Historians of science, I think fortunately, have been unclassifiable with respect to the three great divisions of knowledge in our current classification system. The challenge for judges is that what may seem just in a particular circumstance may be unjust if generalized. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. Where does this phrase come from? jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. The goal is to make one’s judgment consistent over the long run. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. He acted as an executive producer during the Due South’s final season. Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. I have a strong sense that our best reasoning takes place at a semi-conscious level, and I’m very interested in how that lower stratum of reasoning—the intuitions that drive our thinking in philosophy, mathematics, and the rest—is established. Summary: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 01/01/1916. jg: I wanted to ask a general question about your first book, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. This is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable. Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. Norman Alden (born Norman Adelberg, September 13, 1924 – July 27, 2012) was an American character actor who performed in television programs and motion pictures.He first appeared on television on The 20th Century Fox Hour in 1957.He provided the … There’s another aspect to your initial question: the analogy to the current day. And it can work in the other direction—a hypothesis developed from ethnographic work may require statistical testing. Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World . Select this result to view Jack D Gross… For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. ld: Right. One part of this story, then, is the association of calculation first with the division of labor, and then with very cheap labor. JFI’s work sits at the intersection of economics, politics, information technology, finance, and culture to bring promising ideas from theory to practice. JFI is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit applied research organization founded in 2014 by Bob Jain. An interview with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf. This was a story of radical novelty, in which suddenly, like a volcano erupting, something completely new appeared in the intellectual landscape. ld: My college education in the 1970s coincided with the first phases of what we might call quantiphrenia: the beginning of academic evaluation in the form of not only grade point averages, but also citation indices, and so on. In your SSRC Fellow Lecture, you spoke about your research on rules as bringing together the “hard” and “soft” social sciences. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? That really changes over the course of the 20th century. Prudential Insurance, for example, had a workshop entirely devoted to repairing broken down calculating machines. These two senses of “mechanical” converge with Charles Babbage, the mathematician who designed the first computers. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. This is both because the maid is a woman in a dependent relation to her master and because of the remote inferential link between committing the crime and the observed psychological state of the subject. I became interested in quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of some of these attempts to quantify judgment. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. There is, however, a major difference between attempts to formalize reasoning from, say, 18th-century probability theory, and more modern notions of algorithmic rationality. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. To have a spectrum, in which there were degrees of probability between the extreme values of truth and falsehood, was a gobsmacking upheaval. Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. It is therefore no accident that one of the campaigners for probability theory—the Marquis de Condorcet, who was a leader of the early phases of the French Revolution—made it his task to introduce mathematics, including probability theory, into universal schooling for all French citizens. Before moving to Jack's current city of Franklin Lakes, NJ, Jack lived in Miromar Lakes FL, New York NY and Edison NJ. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . Eschewing the dominant frameworks used to analyze and critique digital optimization systems, the authors offer an analysis that illuminates fundamental problems with both optimization systems and the proliferating literature that attempts to solve them. What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. jg: The continuity I was after was between people who work under similar labor conditions as content moderators—often low-wage workers in the Global South, contracted to large American tech firms—but who are performing tasks more closely akin to those of calculators: they are the machine behind the machine, tagging images for computer vision programs and the like. Babbage was also a political economist—a banker—who studied the French project and concluded that “merely mechanical” work, performed by people whom he considered mindless, could be done by a machine. But in terms of actually working on probability, it was Ian Hacking’s The Emergence of Probability that changed my path—literally overnight. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. Read Full Summary There’s not a machine in sight. Jack Gross . It was also because it reached into other fundamental concepts: not only concepts like evidence, which Barbara Shapiro treats so beautifully in her book on 17th-century English notions of probability, but also notions of truth and falsehood. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? Among his most cited early works is the two-part "What Do Bosses Do? Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. If the results derived from the mathematical theory of probability diverged from those that a reasonable person might have concluded, it was probability theory that had to be revised and not the reasoning processes of a small elite of “reasonable people.”. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. By the late 19th century, the Bureau of Calculation at the Paris Observatory was entirely feminized. This holds through all of your projects—from probability to observation to objectivity. One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). As he put it, in his characteristic style: before 1654, there was no concept of probability; it was an unthinkable concept. Jack Gross: I’d like to start by asking about your new book project on rules—“all of them, everywhere,” as you said in a lecture this past winter. Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal, Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics. Complement-dependent lysis of Erhlich ascites tumor cells by human serum (ascitolysin) in lowered in cancer patients and raised in pregnant women. Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … By Jack Gross, President of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS®. 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