The conference issued a petition to the U.S. Congress, signed by 256 people, requesting organization of the territory and elected Nathan P. Cooke as the territorial delegate to Congress. Your email address will not be published. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Led by Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley, southern troops invaded northern New Mexico Territory beginning in February, 1862 in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, as well as the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. JosFChaves.jpg 3,127 × 3,742; 1.09 MB. He was correct that Sibley was planning a new offensive. Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. Following the Battle of Picacho Pass at Picacho Peak the lead detachment of Col. James H. Carleton's California Column, drove the Confederates out of Tucson, and advanced on the Mesilla the capital of Confederate Arizona and by July the Confederates had retreated to Texas. The southern part of the New Mexico Territory, which was the Gadsen Purchase, sided with the Confederacy, while the northern section was Union.New Mexico supplied 26 Union military units. 5 Old West Forts That Will Transport You Through New Mexico’s Past. Taking the offense, Lynde left a small force behind to guard the fort and marched on Mesilla on July 25th. As a result, a secession convention was held at Mesilla, New Mexico in March 1861, where citizens voted to join the Confederacy and formed militia companies to defend themselves. Under his leadership, the slavery laws of the territory were repealed and the Indian tribes of the territory were moved onto reservations. Die südliche Hälfte schloss sich der Sezession an. Foreseeing the oncoming attack, Lynde destroyed the ammunition and supplies and the fort and retreated northeast towards Fort Stanton, some 150 miles to the northeast. 70, 226–227; Josephy, p. 85. The Battle of Mesilla led to the official establishing of a Confederate Arizona Territory, which would consist of the southern portion of the New Mexico Territory and Arizona, and paved the way for the Confederate New Mexico Campaign the following year. In January 1857, the bill for the organization of the territory was introduced into the United States House of Representatives, but the proposal was defeated on the grounds that the population of the proposed territory was yet too small. July 27, 1861. Required fields are marked *. [14], Capt. Confederate troops withdrew after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, because a detachment of the 1st Colorado Infantry under Major John M. Chivington had burned their supply train. The New Mexico Volunteers were unjustly maligned by Edward Canby, the author said, and authors ever since have echoed his sentiments without investigating the facts. You see, the Texas Republic tried to invade New Mexico twenty years before the Civil War, and it didn’t go well. The armies were small, but the stakes were high: control of the Southwest. [6], "The social and political condition of Arizona being little short of general anarchy, and the people being literally destitute of law, order, and protection, the said Territory, from the date hereof, is hereby declared temporarily organized as a military government until such time as Congress may otherwise provide. Battle of Valverde. This would allow the South access to the valuable gold fields in Colorado, as well as the shipping opportunities that were available via California. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed jurisdiction and … Location: Santa Fe County and San Miguel County. We use cookies. Additionally, making matters worse, on March 2 of 1861 the U.S. Government formally revoked a contract with the Butterfield Overland Stagecoach Company which was being used to support delivery of United States mail on the overland route which ran from San Antonio, Texas through El Paso, Texas, Mesilla, Tucson and on to California. That same night, Baylor’s men managed to capture 85 of the fort’s horses, which formed most of the fort’s transportation. A company of Arizona Confederates quickly joined Baylor there. It was incredibly ambitious and not at all expected. Despite the Union regulars, 1st Colorado Infantry, and New Mexican Volunteers being defeated on the battlefield, they ultimately won the campaign; the battle was later dubbed as the "Gettysburg of the West". Lynde then ordered his cavalry and three companies of the Regiment of Mounted Rifles, to charge the Confederate forces. This book corrects many misconceptions that may be useful to all interested in the Civil War in New Mexico. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Alva Gould – Discoverer of the Famous Gould and Curry Mine, Honest Miner To a Poker-Playing Politician, Old Tom – A Typical Mining Camp Character, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado. Find the perfect new mexico civil war reenactment stock photo. One of the most ambitious Confederate campaigns of the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the rebels hoped to establish control of the American West and to open an additional theater in the war. [18], Confederate Arizona Territory, which split off from New Mexico Territory in 1861, was the first U.S. incarnation of Arizona which would come into existence as Arizona Territory in 1863. [12], At the start of the Civil War, the territorial governor was Abraham Rencher; although a Democrat from North Carolina, he refused to support secession, and called out the territorial militia to counteract the Confederate invasion of July 1861. Confederate sympathizers there had … In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward from Fort Thorn up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital … The New Mexico Campaign was an endeavor by the Confederacy to invade what was then known as New Mexico Territory. ", Exactly fifty years later, on the same date, Arizona was made a state in 1912. In pursuit on July 27th, the Confederates captured a number of straggling Union troops and soon overtook Lynde’s command, who had been reduced to only about 100 men as they crossed the dry Organ Mountains. When the U.S. claimed the New Mexico Territory, after the Mexican-American War, the U.S. set up a string of forts across the Territory to protect travelers and settlers from Indian raids, and to keep an eye out for other possible uprisings. The first proposal dates from a conference held in Tucson that convened on August 29, 1856. On December 20, 1861, General Sibley, in command of the Army of New Mexico, issued a proclamation taking possession of New Mexico in the name of the Confederate States. The skirmish that followed, in which one Union cavalryman was wounded, was the westernmost engagement of the Civil War. In July 1861, a small Confederate force of Texans, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor, captured Mesilla in the eastern part of the territory. A significant Confederate push to seize the territory resulted in the New Mexico Campaign from February to April 1862. The Mexican-American War was one of the most significant events that pushed the nation closer to the brink of civil war. Known as the Second Battle of Mesilla, the engagement ended with a Union victory though neither side had any casualties. Even though the column withstood the Apaches and established Fort Bowie to secure the pass, the Californians and the Apache would continue fighting throughout the War and beyond. Protesters in New Mexico pulled down a Civil War-era obelisk in a demonstration where witnesses claim police left before the structure collapsed. [5], Early in war, the Confederacy regarded the territory as a valuable route for possible access to the Pacific Ocean, with the specific intention of capturing California. Able to repulse the oncoming Union troops, both sides then began skirmishing at long range. Additionally, over 8,000 troops from New Mexico Territory served the Union. - D2B8Y6 aus der Alamy-Bibliothek mit Millionen von Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in hoher Auflösung herunterladen. Leading some 380 Union troops, he approached the town and demanded Baylor’s surrender. On August 1, 1861, Baylor declared the establishment of the Confederate Arizona Territory, installed himself as the new territory’s military governor, made Mesilla the capitol, and declared martial law. During the Civil War, the New Mexico Territory included New Mexico, Arizona, and the southern tip of Nevada. There are a total of (5) Civil War Events by State - New Mexico events in the CivilWarTimeline.net database. Sherod Hunter at the head of the Confederate Arizona Rangers, occupied southern Arizona during the spring of 1862. [2] In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, a convention of thirty-one delegates met in Tucson and adopted a constitution for a provisional territorial government of the area south of 34 degrees north. I, John R. Baylor, lieutenant-colonel, commanding the Confederate Army in the Territory of Arizona, hereby take possession of said Territory in the name and behalf of the Confederate States of America. Arizona Civil War New Mexico.png 422 × 359; 24 KB New Mexico is part of of the Civil War story, as was Wilmer McClain. Media in category "New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War" The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. On August 1, Baylor issued a "The Proclamation to the People of the Territory of Arizona", taking possession of the territory for the Confederacy, with Mesilla as the capital and himself as the governor. With Union Troops gone from the southern part of New Mexico Territory as well as Texas, the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles under Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor were sent to occupy the series of forts along the western Texas frontier, as well as advancing into New Mexico to attack the Union forts along the Rio Grande River. Frazier, pp. Delegate Oury was not initially seated in the congress, but met with C.S. [1], After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. SHARE THIS In 1862, hoping to expand westward, the Confederate government and local secessionists sought to enforce their claim to the Confederate Arizona Territory, which included the southern halves of modern-day Arizona and New Mexico and overlapped the Union New Mexico Territory. It was the last engagement between Union and Confederate forces in the Confederate Arizona Territory. This location may seem odd to you unless you’re familiar with the relationship of Texas and New Mexico. Diese Gegend war von Weißen nur wenig bevölkert und spielte im Krieg nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. No need to register, buy now! Confederate Invasion of New Mexico, 1862 Map illustrating the Confederate advance into New Mexico in 1861 and 1862, including major battles. It also stipulated that slavery was to be abolished in the new territory. The Arizona Organic Act passed the Senate in February 1863 without the Tucson-as-capital stipulation, and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, the date of the official organization of the U.S. Arizona Territory. Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (February-March 1862). Die Konföderation nahm sie als Arizona-Territorium mit Mesilla als Hauptstadt auf. [15], In April 1862, a small party of Confederates moving northwest from Tucson met a Union cavalry patrol near Stanwix Station. New Mexico war damals noch kein Bundesstaat, sondern lediglich Territorium. Both the Confederates and the Federal government attempted to control the Apaches. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). But that’s exactly what we did. Your email address will not be published. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. Gen. Gabriel René Paul.jpg 250 × 340; 19 KB. [13], When Federal troops left Arizona early in 1861, the territory was left open to Apache attack. Less than a year later, another battle would be fought near Mesilla on June 1, 1862, between Arizona rebels and the New Mexican Militia. Courtesy of Robert M. Utley. The Confederate Army of New Mexico from Texas briefly occupied southern New Mexico Territory, arriving in February 1862, and tried to push north to Colorado. leaders as well as President Jefferson Davis. The loss of this key communications link with the rest of the United States angered the settlers in the Arizona region, just as the deep South states were seceding from the Union. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired southern portions of the territory.[2]. He bore orders from Governor Baylor to lure the Apaches into Tucson for peace talks and exterminate the adults. The New Mexico Territory, which included the states of New Mexico, Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada and later became States in the US played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. After two months of debate, the legislation passed on January 13, 1862, and the territory was officially created by proclamation of President Jefferson Davis on February 14,[9] with this proclamation: "I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do issue this, my proclamation, declaring said "Act to organize the Territory of Arizona" to be in full force and operation, and that I have proceeded to appoint the officers therein provided to be appointed in and for said Territory. Civil War battles in New Mexico. ", Baylor's subsequent dismantling of the existing Union forts in the territory left the white settlers at the mercy of the Apache, who quickly gained control of the area and forced many of the white settlers to seek refuge in Tucson. Henry Connelly (New Mexico Governor).jpg 361 × 498; 27 KB. Hunter's frontiersmen spent most of their time expelling Union supporters and skirmishing with Federal troops, so the order was never enforced. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over it. Other leading and trailing events are also included for perspective. Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led a series of raids on white civilians that left dozens dead and spread fear and terror across the territory. After the fort was abandoned by the Union garrison, Baylor's force cut off the fleeing Union troops and forced them to surrender. The Civil War in New Mexico. Brig. Texas Congressman John Reagan introduced a bill on November 22, 1861 to formally create the Territory of Arizona. Media in category "People of New Mexico in the American Civil War" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. Union service records of soldiers who served in organizations from the Territory of New Mexico. The Battle of Mesilla resulted in a Confederate victory. Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862) Date(s): March 26-28, 1862. As a result, a secession convention was held at Mesilla, New Mexico … The demonstration took place in … Description. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona, List of New Mexico Territory Civil War units, American Civil War Research Database statistics, Arizona Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Arizona Chapter, National Park Service map of Civil War sites in New Mexico, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_Territory_in_the_American_Civil_War?oldid=4415501. Principal Commanders: Maj. John C. Chivington and Col. John P. Slough [US]; Maj. Charles L. Pyron and Lt. Col. William R. Scurry [CS] That month he was replaced by Henry Connelly, a native of New Mexico who would serve as governor for the remainder of the war. The Confederate Army of New Mexico … New Mexico and the Civil War book. On July 24, 1861, 250 troops of the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles crossed the Rio Grande River into Mesilla, arriving to the cheers of the population. Planning to attack the Union force at Fort Fillmore the next day, they were thwarted by a Confederate deserter who informed the Fort Fillmore’s commander, Major Isaac Lynde. The remaining Union troops in the New Mexico Territory were concentrated in forts along and near the Rio Grande; the commander of the Union Department of New Mexico, Colonel Edward R. S. Canby, started raising regiments of New Mexico volunteers and militia to replace the regular army units which were ordered east. The Civil War in New Mexico was fought in the deserts and mountains of the huge territory, which was mostly wilderness, amid the continuing ancient wars against the wild Indian tribes waged by both sides. The extremely ambitious plan was made more manageable by carrying minimal supplies, instead, capturing supplies at Union forts and depots along the Santa Fe Trail and living off the land. The first capital was at Fort Whipple, followed by Prescott, in the northern Union-controlled area. The records include a jacket-envelope for each soldier, labeled with his name, his rank, and the unit in which he served. The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada, played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. A significant Confederate push to seize the territory resulted in the New Mexico Campaign from February to April 1862. The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired south… During this time, the residents of New Mexico Territory continuously c… His strategy also included taking the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Lower California, either through purchase or by invasion. It’s a crazy thing to think that 154 years ago today we decided that it was acceptable to kill off a large percentage of our male population between the ages of 18 and 30. It opened up an additional theater in the American Civil War. Subsequently a second convention was held in Tucson on March 28, 1861, chaired by Mark Aldrich, who had been Tucson's first mayor. The Confederate general had served with the U.S. army in Taos prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. [16], As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The plan was to gain control of the southwestern part of the continent. The prisoners were paroled and Baylor returned to Fort Fillmore. The Wikipedia article, New Mexico in the American Civil War, has more … Our cookies are delicious. Arizona became its own territory in 1863 during the war. Includes bibliography. Carleton's troops later fought the Battle of Apache Pass after being ambushed by Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. Tag: New Mexico Civil War Book Review: Valverde. Later a similar proposal was defeated in the Senate. Drawing on many sources the campaign comes alive though solid writing. They dreamed of changing the course of the war and fulfilling their manifest destiny. Dr. Pittman brings the Civil War in New Mexico to life with this book. However, the people of Arizona remained firm in their support of Baylor, and held another convention on August 28, 1861 in Tucson, ratifying Baylor's proclamation. The plan called for an invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing Colorado Territory, which was in the height of a gold rush, as well as Fort Laramie, Wyoming, which was the most important garrison along the Oregon Trail. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. A weekend-long gay dance blowout held at a beach resort on the West Coast of Mexico has created enough social-media controversy and in-fighting to be dubbed “gay civil war.” However, when the Union found out that the Texans were coming into the territory, they reinforced the fort. DiegoArchuleta(Gen)HstMilitOccNM.jpg 327 × 495; 100 KB. The proposal for creation of the territory was controversial in part because of the perception that the New Mexico Territory was under the influence of southern sympathizers who were highly desirous of expanding slavery into the southwest. Historians regard this campaign as the most ambitious Confederate attempt to establish control of the American Westand to open an additional theater in the w… However, the territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. In 1861, Federal troops went east, which left white civilians unprotected from Indian attacks. A detachment of Hunter's force traveled along the Overland Mail route and destroyed caches of hay to prevent their use by Union forces; it traveled to within eighty miles of Fort Yuma. As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. [17] As the war lengthened and Union troops were withdrawn to fight elsewhere, famed explorer and frontiersman Kit Carson helped organize and command the 1st New Mexico Cavalry, a militia unit, to engage in campaigns against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche in New Mexico and Texas, as well as participating in the earlier Battle of Valverde against the Confederates. New Mexico Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. In the Spring of 1861, Sibley, a Louisianan who had just resigned from the U.S. Army, met with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, outlining a strategy to take over the American West. The house bill stipulated that Tucson was to be capital. Civil War New Mexico Union Militia 12,970 names: No. The use of a north-south border rather than an east-west one had the effect of denying a de facto ratification of the Confederate Arizona Territory. In the agony of a nation at war with itself, the Confederate invasion of New Mexico Territory was a minor drama. … The Tucson convention ratified the Mesilla convention, and provisional officers were elected for the newly established Provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona with Dr. Lewis Owings as its governor, and Granville H. Oury as its first delegate to the Confederate States Congress, who immediately began petitioning for admission.

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