Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. In 1807 the French ruler Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821) invaded Portugal through Spain. The Socialist countries – Yugoslavia, Poland, Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, People’s Republic of China and Cuba – had a prominent role in the work carried out between 1965-­‐1974 by the Decolonization Committee on the intersection between the foreign investments and colonial domination in the Portuguese colonies. At the turn of the 17th century, with the union with Castile, the Spanish kings favored the free movement of the people, and other lands of the New World, such as Peru and the Gulf of Mexico, were open to the Portuguese merchants. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th centu… During the 1600s, the Dutch emerged as the main rival to Portugal in the Americas. Intermittent conflict continued until a lasting peace agreement was signed in 1661. This event brought the Arabic language, which also left its mark on between 400 and 800 Portuguese words. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. With approximately 200,000 men, Portugal took control of the city in one day. He enacted a range of reforms designed to enhance Portugal's wealth and power, known collectively as the Pombaline reforms. However, the donatory system displaced tribes, and the rise of sugarcane plantations led to efforts to enslave native peoples. [6] From the east coast, the fleet then turned eastward to resume the journey to the southern tip of Africa and India. In 1820 a military rebellion in Portugal forced the return of the king and court while republican revolts spread across Brazil. The term is also applied to a group of nationals wh…, THE CAUSE OF DECOLONIZATION Kieman, Mathias C. The Indian Policy of Portugal in the Amazon Region, 1614–1693. Only two of the captaincies were economically successful, but these became enormously wealthy through sugar cultivation, and Brazil became the world's largest producer of sugar by the 1570s. As a result, a series of Brazilian rebellions broke out in 1817. This formable was suggested by Finglestar. The result was armed conflict between Portuguese settlers and natives. An early Portuguese presence in Sri Lanka is steadily increased during the century. [18], Portuguese colonization in South America and attempts in North America, Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt (in ancient german and portuguese), Former colonies and territories in Canada, "Uruguay Facts — Exploring Uruguay, Expat & Travel Resource Guide". Many former Portuguese colonies have today, been subsumed into modern day countries, with some areas having had their borders and maps redrawn a number of times throughout the last three or four centuries. Beginning in 1500, the crown offered leases to Brazilian merchant groups, but by 1506 the monarchy took direct control of the trade posts after the leases failed to attract significant interest. Several epidemics had devastating impacts on the indigenous population, and by 1563 some one-third to one-half of the native population had been wiped out. [2] Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502, the Corte-Real brothers explored and charted Greenland and what is today the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming these lands as part of the Portuguese Empire. They made an agreement in which they set out guidelines for governing their North American colony. In 1751, the State of Maranhão was restructured into the State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, with a new capital and government. The Portugese Army more likely then not had military attaches in Vietnam among American,South Korean Australian and Thai forces. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. The Corte-Real explorations of North America in the official Library and Archives Canada website. The new states would fare poorly and only last 3 years. Chronology of the Portuguese Colonies, Portuguese forts and settlements, Portuguese colonies Though the enslavement of Indians was discouraged, it was only with the arrival of the Jesuits in 1549 that … These settlements were more successful in the southern regions. However, individual Portuguese merchants began to cultivate sugarcane in Pernambuco in the 1520s. In 1775, the three colonies of Portuguese America (the State of Brazil, the State of Maranhão and Piauí; and the State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro) were united into a singular colony, under the State of Brazil. By the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, Portugal claimed its empire in the east, Brazil. Through their efforts, the crown created two classes of Native Americans. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Rotterdam University Press, 1970. Nonetheless, the Portuguese-founded towns of Portugal Cove-St. Philip's, St. Peter's, St. John's, Conception Bay and surrounding areas of east Canada remains important as a cultural region, even today. The British and Portuguese were allies during wars with Holland, and a series of treaties, signed in 1642, 1654, and 1661, granted the British commercial and trade concessions in the Portuguese colonies. A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia, and America, 1415–1808. In Latin America, Brazil is a former colony of Portugal, and has Portuguese as its official language. The conflict between Holland and Portugal had its roots in the period of the dual monarchy, which coincided with the Dutch struggle for independence against the Spanish. "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese ed., London: Papermac, 1995. It has also been suggested that Duarte Pacheco Pereira may have discovered the coasts of Brazil in 1498, possible its northeast, but the exact area of the expedition and the explored regions remain unclear. Portuguese explorers played a significant role in opening areas in the region for further exploration and exploitation by other imperial states, including the introduction of the modern slave system. This seems controversial, since he changed part of his description in the subsequent letter (stating that around 32° S, they made a shift to open sea, to south-southeast), maintaining, however, that they reached a similar 50° S latitude. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. Afonso de Albuquerque’s dream was an infusion of Portuguese blood into each of the colonies. Rio de Janeiro became the new capital of the Portuguese Empire, and colonial officials in Brazil gained new power and influence. Like Brazil, Angola was formerly a Portuguese colony. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas
2. The Portuguese and Spanish became great colonizing nations at the end of the Middle Ages. It was influenced by the languages introduced to the region during the barbaric invasions, particularly German, and much later in history, the Moorish invasions. On the other hand, some historians have suggested that the Portuguese may have encountered the South American bulge earlier while sailing the "volta do mar" (in the Southwest Atlantic), hence the insistence of King John II in moving the line west of the line agreed upon in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Their existence is based on brief or fragmentary historical documents that are unclear concerning the destinations of voyages. The early explorers had found the coastal areas of Brazil to be sparsely populated and judged that the area's economic value was limited. In 1534 Portugal began shipping criminals to Brazil as laborers, but the relatively small numbers were not sufficient to meet demand. New Laws of the Indies. America. In addition, Portugal allied itself with Great Britainduring the European dynastic wars of the early to mid 1700s. In September 1821 the Portuguese Parliament abolished Brazil's status as a separate kingdom and sent troops to bolster the colonial government. Today, Portuguese is among the world's ten most spoken languages. "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese Hemming, John. Strategic reasons also added impetus to the decision, including imperial competition in the region from France (a Portuguese expedition in 1503 discovered French incursions into Brazilian territory). The University of Mexico was established as early as 1551. Most likely there were also Portuguese military attaches in Algeria during the French Algerian war of 1954 … The gold rush further accelerated the slave trade as new slaves were imported to work in the mines. A large area of South America remained outside the Spanish empire. It can be formed by Portugal. [8][9], Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer in four Spanish and Portuguese exploratory voyages. [16], Portuguese merchants have been trading in the West Indies. POST-1945 HISTORICAL CONTEXTS Rev. Kelsey_Lyons. Believing the land to be an island, he named it Ilha de Vera Cruz(Island of the … The Economy Spain controlled trade for New Spain, they forbade that they trade with other European nations and other Spanish colonies. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 divided the Earth outside Europe into Castilian and Portuguese global territorial hemispheres for exclusive conquest and colonization. His greatest impact on the kingdom's American colonies was the expulsion of the Jesuits, whose exile he ordered in the belief that they held too much power and influence, especially in the remote areas of Brazil. Tomé de Sousa (d. 1573) served as the first governor-general (1549–1553). 13 terms. Sugar cane was a very profitable resource, but to grow it, it implied to have many workers, and these were the Native Americans. 1467–1520) discovered Brazil when seeking a more direct route to India. From 1534 to 1536, 15 Captaincy colonies were created in Portuguese America. Schwartz, Stuart B. Trade and Power: Informal Colonialism in Anglo-Portuguese Relations. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. In 1815, following the death of Maria I and the installation of João as King João VI, Brazil was elevated to the status of a kingdom with a dual monarchy. The expeditions became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him, published between 1502 and 1504. [12][13] Portugal colonized parts of South America (Brazil, Colónia do Sacramento, Uruguay, Guanare, Venezuela), but also made some unsuccessful attempts to colonize North America (Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia in Canada). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese Boxer, C. R. Race Relations in the Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1415–1825. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. 6.4-6.5 Rhombi, Rectangles, Squares. Nations established colonies as outposts to promote their interests in their expanding empires. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. The Portuguese were among the first Europeans to establish colonies in the Americas. Among his crew was the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci. Subsequent French attempts to establish a new colony failed. Maxwell, Kenneth. The independence of Latin America After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. The island of Bombay is ceded to the Portuguese in 1534. What were the social, economic, and political characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese rule in Latin America? During this period, the Portuguese concentrated on exporting brazilwood from the Americas but did not seek to establish any large colonies. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995. These were later abandoned, however, when Portuguese colonizers began to focus their efforts mainly on South America. Some historians have attributed this voyage to Coelho and Vespucci years before, but a good part of historians and researchers, through the sparse and comparative documentation, identify the captains and the experienced pilot of the India run ("the best Pilot of Portugal" and a "best friend" of the Fugger's Agent), with Diogo Ribeiro, Estevão Frois and the pilot João de Lisboa. Sovereignty and Society in Colonial Brazil: The High Court of Bahia and its Judges, 1609–1751. After succeeding in finding a maritime route to the East, Portugal left Spain to concentrate on the Americas, opened up by Christopher Columbus's (1451–1506) voyages in 1492. One category classified natives as peaceful and able to be converted (and therefore granted certain protections under the auspices of the Jesuits), while the second category was reserved for Native Americans who resisted conversion and consequently could be enslaved. The new system was implemented so that Portuguese America could be managed correctly and provide a steady and wealthy income for the Portuguese Empire. [citation needed] João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521. Each grant extended about 241 kilometers (150 miles) in length and reached into the unknown interior. From 1565 through 1567, Mem de Sá, the third Governor General of Brazil, successfully destroyed a ten-year-old French colony called France Antarctique, at Guanabara Bay. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Fragmentary evidence also suggests a previous expedition in 1473 by João Vaz Corte-Real, their father, with other Europeans, to Terra Nova do Bacalhau (Newfoundland of the Codfish) in North America. Portugal became the center of the British land effort to defeat Napoléon. Between 1630 and 1654, the Netherlands came to control part of Brazil's Northeast region, with their capital in Recife. The crown granted official approval to import slaves into Brazil in 1559, and the slave trade dramatically increased in the 1570s. [4], In April 1500, the second Portuguese India Armada, headed by Pedro Álvares Cabral, with a crew of expert captains, including Bartolomeu Dias and Nicolau Coelho, encountered the Brazilian coast as it swung westward in the Atlantic while performing a large "volta do mar" to avoid becalming in the Gulf of Guinea. Natives who converted to Christianity were resettled into Jesuit-controlled enclaves known as aldeias. Maxwell, Kenneth. These were known as the Pernambuco Revolution after the province where the insurrection started. To escape the advancing French forces, the regent, Dom João (1769–1826), the son of the mentally unbalanced Queen Maria I (1734–1816), and his court fled to Brazil (the escape was aided by the British, who ultimately moved some fifteen thousand Portuguese to Brazil and lent the government $3 million to keep it solvent). The explorers also reported that after going by the 40th parallel to south, along the coast, they found a "land" or "point extending into the sea", and further south, a Gulf.[14][15]. Known as France Antarctique, the colony was destroyed in 1567 by Mem de Sá (d. 1572), Brazil's third governor-general, who founded Rio de Janeiro on the site of the former French settlement. Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians. This arrangement would last until the end of Colonial Brazil. The Portuguese had started importing African slaves into Europe in 1441 and into the Spanish colonies in 1510, so that by the time of the sugar boom in Brazil, the trade had matured and was regulated through private contracts. Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Possessions. ." The history of Colonialism as a policy or practice go…, PLYMOUTH COLONY (or Plantation), the second permanent English settlement in North America, was founded in 1620 by settlers including a group of relig…, Empires and Nation-States: Political Geography, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, Government, Colonial, in Portuguese America. There were long-running colonial conflicts between Portugal and Spain, which were exacerbated by political struggles in Europe. The Portuguese Empire (Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. They sought religious freedom instead of commercial profit. Vespucci wrote that they headed toward the southwest-south, following "a long, unbending coastline". 1469–1524) landed in India and established trading posts that were to be the building blocks of Portugal's great maritime empire in Asia. Despite their dictator’s hard stance, independence movements arose in Angola, Guinea Bissau, and Mozambique whi… Between 1808 and 1826 all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. In 1621, Philip II of Portugal divided the Governorate General of Brazil into two separate and autonomous colonies, the State of Maranhão and the State of Brazil. To such an extent, that, for instance, for the Portuguese town of Póvoa de Varzim, most of its seafarers dying abroad, most of the deaths occurred in the Route of the Antilles, in the West Indies. The Early Navigators practically have been to the entire Caribbean, from The Bahamas to Jamaica. The king dispatched Martín Alfonso de Sousa (d. 1564) with a fleet and instructions to rid Brazil of any French presence and to establish settlements (the French argued that Portuguese claims to territory were invalid because there were no permanent settlements in the areas claimed by Lisbon). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Goa functions from the start as the capital of Portuguese India. Papiamento, one of the languages spoken in the islands, is a mixture of Portuguese , Spanish and African languages. The Indians taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn and helped them survive in the new land. freespirit21. Meanwhile, Portuguese maritime explorations continued, and in 1487 Bartholomeu Dias (ca. Furthermore, Portugal's territory was not divided into smaller colonies, which in the long term allowed the emergence of Brazil as a unified regional power. Portugal pressed into the hinterland of Angola and Mozambiq… 1450–1500) sailed around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1807 the French ruler Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821) invaded Portugal through Spain. Economic Practice. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. [1] To that end, in 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese mariner João Fernandes Lavrador visited the northeast Atlantic coast and Greenland, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period. Pombal was subsequently able to gain a great deal of influence over the monarchy. In 1580, however, Portugal and Spain began a period of dual monarchy under the Hapsburgs. ... Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas. Portugal was also one of the first imperial states to grant independence to its colonies in the Western Hemisphere. This discovery accelerated the transformation of the colony from a coastal settlement to one with significant infrastructure in the interior regions. Spanish monarchs The Portuguese occupied Angolain the 1500s with Soyo and Luanda being the first settlements. Given that all the countries that fall under the ‘umbrella’ of Latin America share some geographical, political … De Sousa founded two towns, São Vicente and São Paulo. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. There were four reasons that Portuguese America remained a single country, while Spanish America split into many countries. In 1570 there were about 3,000 slaves in Brazil, about 15,000 by 1600, and by 1650 more than 200,000. 1 History 2 Threats to Formation 3 Geography 4 Manpower 5 Resources ThePortuguese Empire or thePortuguese Colonial Empire, was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed byPortugal. most valuable resources shipped from Spanish America to Spain. Regarding this period it is preferable to refer to "Portuguese America" rather than "Portuguese Brazil" or "Colonial Brazil", as the states were two separate colonies, each with their own governor general and government.

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